Personal Health

Stem cells: a replacement from their own Bodies

With a new technique köcan researchers from the tissue of the patient’s stem cells. It is about Mini-organs f&uuml can;r cancer therapy züwant to. Üabout the Möthe possibilities of stem cell therapy

Source of renewal: In this bioreactor züwant to scientists stem cells, such as für research on Mini-organs

Healthy tissue from stem cells züwant to. The wäre für researchers such as physicians, such as winning the lottery – and a großhe profit für each of us. Stem cells verfügen üabout the special Fäthe ability of new nerves, blood, skin and many other cells. Thus, they are suitable, in principle, to replace tissue lost through disease or injury, or geschäwas damaged.

This hope köcould tatsätake one day Realität. Üeverywhere in the world scientists work on stem cell therapies für diseases of a variety of previously unbehandelbarer. And you are again and again small Etappen­victories. A few treatments are also applied. The most Ansätze are but still in the research stage.

Here, it is successfully cured with stem cells

Not only the music of the future: In these areas there are already therapies with stem cells. 

Blood stem cells are transplanted to diseases of the blood to treat or the blood system after cancer therapy. 

Für the eye-Hornhaut has Recently become a stem cell therapy approved in Europe. 

In großfläorgone burns in some centres in Germany, the new skin by using skin stem cells can be used. 

Patient tissue provides küartificial generated stem cells

"We currently große hopes to küartificial produced Stammzellen", Professor Heike Walles, head of the Department f&uuml says;r Tissue Engineering and Regenerative medicine at the University hospital of Würzburg. Für these stem cells to be reprogrammed to the specialized tissue cells of the adult. So verfüyou ühas two advantageous features: firstly, köyou can be from the patient himself recovered, the immune system then after the therapy, no Abstoßreactions shows. Secondly, the cells have the potential to all cell types of the human Köto form body. They behave like embryonic stem cells – für whose extraction, however, an Embryo küartificial created and zerstört mübiggest. 

The ethically acceptable Alternative developed by Professor Shinya Yamanaka of Japan in 2006. He programmed skin cells into stem cells that behave like embryonic – and received dafür only six years später the Nobel prize. Quickly the experts had recognized the potential of the research. Until then, scientists f&uuml had it;r ­unmöresembled held that spezia­­metallic tissue cells into stem cells zurüblock development köcan. Today beschäWissen&shy-half;schaft­­ler in the world, with the so-called induced pluripotent stem cells, IPS.

Stem cells köcan AMD’s, Parkinson’s and cancer help

At the research centre Riken in Kobe (Japan), for example, züit is considered resulting in retinal cells of the eye and is testing this on patients with age-related macular degeneration. In this disease büßa en the person Concerned and according to your eyesight. At the Universität Kyoto (Japan) is developing a stem cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease. In this condition, brain cells die, forming the neurotransmitter dopamine. As a result, Bewegungsst&ouml result;increases, which worsen with the years. The researchers in Kyoto program the IPS to terminate dopamine picture of nerve cells. In a few months, this should be Concerned and tested, in order to test whether this novel therapy is safe.

Also as a starting material für more complex Structure of the IPS use, für so-called Organoids. "These Cell clusters do not look like real organs, but their structure is quite exactly nach", erklärt Heike Walles. As for replacement parts, the Mini-organs are not suitable for a long time.

However, they can be used, for example, new medicines to explore. A pioneer in this field is the NiederläProfessor Hans Clevers of the Universität in Utrecht. The physician and biologist developed a technique to multiply stem cells indefinitely and it verläterrible Mini-organs to züwant to.

Möurgency of an individual cancer therapy

Among other things, it has succeeded from the tumor tissue of colorectal cancer patients, an Organoid Biobank. He is using this now to test active compounds against the tumors. In principle, it paves Clevers’ new method the way für individual cancer therapies. Because tumors differ from Patient to Patient. A substance that acts with one möperhaps the others no curative effect. Organoids köcould help to find the right treatment.

This objective is also the Zellbio&shy followed;Lodge, Professor Martin Zenke – für people with rare forms of blood cancer, with special Erbgutverächanges (mutations) in leiden. "We manufacture from the mutant cells, IPS, differentiation in Blutkrebs­cells and test them, what is the drug passt", erklärt of the Director of the Institute für Biomedical engineering, and cell biology at the Universitätsklinikum Aachen. In this way, köcan Ädoctors concerned the patient an effective cancer therapy to offer – if there is one.

These stem cell types are there

The Alleskömen

Is fertilized the ovum, ­it begins to divide. Up to the 8-cell stage, apply the cells as totipotent: each köcould still be a man. 

The Multi-Talented

After füfive days is a germ bubble. From the cells in your Inner züwant researchers to use embryonic stem cells. They are considered to be pluripotent, because they sämt­advanced cell types of our Köbody k&ouml bring forth;can.

The Specialists

As adults, we have only so-called adult stem cells with the Fäto renew the ability of certain cell types and tissues. They are called multipotent .

Life-saver: researchers to repair genetic defect in skin stem cells

Better wäit re Üto grab bel directly to the root of the genetic material to eliminate errors. In the past year, ­a gro&szlig managed, for example,;he success, by a combined stem cell – gene therapy: The plas­tables surgeon and expert für burns, Professor Marcus Lehnhardt, Berufsgenossenschaftliches University hospital Bergmannsheil in Bochum healed a achtjäold boys from the butterfly disease. In this hereditary disease the skin will make your Stüsystem not correctly made. At the smallest, Berücurrencies bubbles. This burst, depending on the Severity of the disease to großfläspeaking of wounds.

When the Boy was admitted in the Bochum hospital, his condition critical. "More than 60 percent of his skin were betroffen", Lehnhardt reported. The Ädoctors were already on the verge of palliative Maßtook to initiate – to alleviate the suffering of your little patients with medicines. They thought he müsse die. But then the experts managed together with Ädoctors from Modena (Italy), from a skin sample from your patient’s skin stem to isolate cells.

The Italian scientists have corrected the genetic defect in the skin’s stem cells by using a Virus that incorporates itself into the genome. The pathological gene segment is replaced by the intact. "When we saw that this works, we have from the repaired cells new skin gezüchtet", erklärt Lehnhardt. The professionals in Bochum transplanted the young, the newly formed tissue. He was healthy again. The result of the treatment üexceeded all expectations. Lehnhardt: "The new skin was soft and was barely scars."

The Möthe possibilities of stem cell therapy are begrenzt 

Spektakuläre messages like this köcan, however, also convey the impression that stem cells are a panacea &ndash be; one that is on the verge of the mass. Both is not true. The number of hospitals, desperate patients fragwüdesires stem cell therapies offer wäfirst, however, in the world.

Are entitled to the hopes of the Bochum University hospital. Within the nänext zwölf months möwere there for a burnt offering according to the following principle k&ouml treat;can: from a sample of skin stem cells can be isolated, resulting in new skin züwant and then transplant. "The wäre Riesenschritt", Lehnhardt says. And a further stage win on the way to a Ära  new, individual Therapiemöopportunities.

Stem cell therapy: caution in unseriösen Offered

The market für abuse of ungeprüthe shops of stem cell therapies wäfirst of all. "Some providers be­claim: you Come to us, we take the blood, schüshaking it twice, the cells zurück, and it helps against Alzheimer’s, Diabetes, and Rückenleiden", Professor Martin Zenke, Director of the Institute f&uuml says;r Biomedical engineering, and cell biology at the University hospital Aachen.

Safety and efficacy of such unseriöser therapies were in the majority Fäcases in studies überprüft. Also, they are not officially ­Application approved. "The Pro­­the problem is that the field of stem cell therapy to date is not sufficient by regulations kon­checked wird", so Zenke.

The Internet will also be un­geprüRTD stem cell therapies ­­offered to help Multiple sclerosis, Diabetes or Parkinson’s disease. Unseriös are especially good deals, in which physicians adult stem cells do not want to use, where they were taken. Because ­­Blood stem cells, for example köcan only form cells of the blood system. 

Inform you in seriöthese institutions üabout an offer. The German Stem Cell Network, a competence network stem cell research NRW and the International Society for Stem Cell Research.

You can also read

Mini-organs: an Alternative to animal experiments?

Researchers züwant tiny Mägene, brains, and kidneys. These Organoids facilitate research into diseases and new drugs