The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved zanubrutinib (Brukinsa) capsules for use in the treatment of adult patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (WM), a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to an approval letter from the agency to BeiGene, the drug’s maker.
The FDA stipulated that the company conduct an additional clinical trial (rather than an observational study) to assess the “known serious risk of second primary malignancies” associated with use of zanubrutinib. The study should further characterize the clinical benefit and safety of zanubrutinib for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed WM with MYD88 mutation, the agency said.
The drug, which is a small-molecule inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), previously received accelerated approval for use in patients with mantle cell lymphoma who have received one prior therapy. It is also being studied for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
The new approval is primarily based on results from ASPEN, a randomized, active control, open-label trial that compared zanubrutinib and ibrutinib.
The ASPEN trial provided “compelling evidence” that zanubrutinib is a highly active BTK inhibitor in WM and that it showed improved tolerability across a number of clinically important side effects in comparison with the first-generation BTK inhibitor ibrutinib, said study investigator Steven Treon, MD, PhD, director of the Bing Center for Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia Research at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. “The approval of [zanubrutinib] provides an important new option for targeted therapy in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia,” he added in a company press statement.
The recommended dosage is 160 mg orally twice daily or 320 mg orally once; the drug should be swallowed whole with water with or without food.
In ASPEN, all patients had MYD88 mutation WM. Patients in cohort 1 (n = 201) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive zanubrutinib 160 mg twice daily or ibrutinib 420 mg once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. A total of 82% of patients had relapsed/refractory disease.
The major efficacy outcome was the response rate, defined as partial response or better (ie, partial response, very good partial response, and complete response), as determined on the basis of standard consensus response criteria from the International Workshop on Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia (IWWM-6) criteria.
The drugs had nearly identical response rates (roughly 77%). There were no complete responses with either drug. However, zanubrutinib had twice the rate of very good partial responses compared with ibrutinib (15.7% vs 7.1%). In addition, on the basis of modified IWWM-6 criteria, the very good partial response rate was 28% with zanubrutinib, compared to 19% with ibrutinib.
An additional efficacy outcome measure was duration of response, which was measured by the percentage of patients who were event free at 12 months. Zanubrutinib bested ibrutinib in this measure (94.4% vs 87.9%).
The safety of zanubrutinib was also investigated in the ASPEN trial. Among patients who received zanubrutinib, 93% were exposed for 6 months or longer, and 89% were exposed for longer than 1 year. In cohort 1, serious adverse reactions occurred in 44% of patients who received zanubrutinib. Serious adverse reactions that occurred in >2% of patients included influenza (3%), pneumonia (4%), neutropenia and decreased neutrophil count (3%), hemorrhage (4%), pyrexia (3%), and febrile neutropenia (3%).
In the FDA’s prescribing information for the drug, which includes approved indications and pooled safety data, the most common adverse reactions for zanubrutinib (≥20%) are listed as decreased neutrophil count, upper respiratory tract infection, decreased platelet count, rash, hemorrhage, musculoskeletal pain, decreased hemoglobin, bruising, diarrhea, pneumonia, and cough.
Nick Mulcahy is an award-winning senior journalist for Medscape. He previously freelanced for HealthDay and MedPageToday and had bylines in WashingtonPost.com, MSNBC, and Yahoo. Email: [email protected] and on Twitter: @MulcahyNick.
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